Graphite is a common material used as the anode in lithium-ion batteries. The anode is the negative electrode in a lithium-ion battery, and it is typically made of carbon. Graphite is a form of carbon that is highly conductive and has a high theoretical capacity for lithium-ion storage.

In a lithium-ion battery, lithium ions are inserted into the anode during charging and removed from the anode during discharge. When lithium ions are inserted into the anode, they are intercalated into the layers of graphite, allowing for the storage of a large amount of lithium ions. The intercalation of lithium ions into the graphite lattice structure is reversible, which allows the battery to be charged and discharged multiple times without degradation.

One of the advantages of using graphite as the anode material in lithium-ion batteries is that it is relatively inexpensive and abundant. Additionally, it has a high theoretical capacity of 372 mAh/g for lithium-ion storage, making it a good choice for high-energy-density batteries. However, graphite also has some limitations as an anode material. For example, it has a relatively low rate of lithium-ion insertion and extraction, which can limit the power density of the battery. Additionally, the expansion and contraction of the graphite during charging and discharging can cause mechanical stress and degradation of the anode over time.